a miller ruling, the miller retroactivity ruling, and jackson joint ruling all affect sentencing laws in 28 states and the federal government. judges inconsistently interpreted millers retroactivity. in 2012, deciding miller and jackson jointly, the u.s. supreme court held that, for people under 18, mandatory life without parole sentences violated the eighth amendment.
the small number of veterans who were exposed to nerve agents during the gulf war seemed to be the most sensitive to the toxic effects of organophosphate insecticides, including to the op insecticide malathion [ 20 ]. within the u.s. military, pyridostigmine bromide (pb) is the only op insecticide currently authorized for use on the battlefield. pb can cause severe cholinergic symptoms, especially in individuals with preexisting medical conditions or those who are over-exposed. pb is an important chemical warfare agent that was in use by several world powers during the second half of the 20th century. pb has been used by the u. military in the past [ 21 ] and the environmental protection agency (epa) is currently considering re-authorizing it for use in the u. [ 22 ].
the gulf war era veterans developed a constellation of symptoms, including fatigue, headaches, malaise, and memory loss that was very similar to gulf war illness. fatigue and memory loss were the two most bothersome symptoms. in addition, veterans frequently complained of chronic diarrhea. additionally, individuals with unexplainable neuropsychological symptoms reported that they were unable to eat as well as they could before the war. some of the gulf war veterans reported that the cholinergic symptoms lasted longer than other symptoms. the symptoms were reported to be getting better, but were still present. 27) miller at 2466. 3d9ccd7d82